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Communication Systems By R P Singh And S D Sapre Berkalei







Communication systems Communication systems are important in many fields. They are used to transmit information from one point to another. The transmission may be either wired or wireless. Wired communication systems include both telephone and network systems. Wireless systems can be cellular (cellular mobile telephone), cordless (telephone), paging (useful for one-way communications), radio and microwave. In general, the longer a distance the information must travel, the less efficient the transmission system. Radio is the transmission of information by electromagnetic waves between transmitters and receivers, or senders and receivers. All communication devices act as transmitters and/or receivers. Since the electromagnetic spectrum is a finite resource and the signals must traverse the distance between transmitters and receivers, there are practical limits to the amount of power that a signal can carry, and thus the number of users that can receive the same signal. Communication circuits and components A communication circuit is the physical entity that allows signal transmission, reception, amplification, regeneration, detection, and other signal processing to take place in a communication system. Communication circuits may be hardware, software, or firmware. Hardware circuits consist of specific circuits or devices that allow for signal transmission and reception. Software and firmware circuits are contained within the processor or microprocessor of a computer system, as well as within integrated circuits. Communication circuits and devices are important in the design and operation of communication systems. Communication systems are further categorized by the type of transmission medium, the type of communication circuit, and the type of communication protocol. Communication systems may be analog, digital, or hybrid (mix of both). The type of transmission medium is defined by the physical entity that carries the signals. Analog communication is carried over a wire, usually a copper wire. Digital communication is carried over an optical fiber, wire, or satellite, usually by electromagnetic radiation. Communication protocols are based upon a standard, rule-based system that is used to coordinate the transfer of data between networked devices. One such protocol is the Internet Protocol Suite, or TCP/IP. However, in most situations, a specific protocol will not be used. Instead, a number of different protocols may be used in a single communication system. Types of communication systems The type of transmission medium Communication media may be divided into two types: wire and wireless. A wire is any material or combination of materials that permits the transfer of information from a source to a receiver, usually over a distance. Wired communication can be ac619d1d87


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